ALGAE DISCOLORATION: A type of
roof discoloration by algae. Commonly called fungus growth.
AMERICAN METHOD: Application of giant individual
shingles with the dimension parallel to the rake. Shingles are
applied with a 3/4" inch space between adjacent shingles
in a course.
ASPHALT: A brownish-black solid or semisolid
mixture of bitumens obtained from native deposits or as a petroleum
byproduct, used in paving, roofing and waterproofing.
ASPHALT ROOFING CEMENT: An asphalt-based cement
used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement
or mastic; should conform to ASTM D 4586 (Asbestos Free) or
ASTM D 2822 (Asbestos Containing).
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. A
voluntary organization concerned with development of consensus
standards, testing procedures and specifications.
BACK SURFACING: Fine mineral
matter applied to the backside of shingles to keep them from
BASE FLASHING: That portion of the flashing attached
to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the
BLISTERS: Bubbles that may appear on the surface
of asphalt roofing after installation.
BRANDS: Airborne burning embers released from
BRIDGING: A method of reroofing with metric-sized
BUILT-UP ROOF: A flat or low-sloped roof consisting
of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.
BUNDLE: A package of shingles. There are 3,
4 or 5 bundles per square. A group of shingles held together,
as by tying or wrapping.
BUTT EDGE: The lower edge of the shingle tabs.
CAULK: To fill a joint with mastic
or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.
CEMENT: See Asphalt Roofing Cement.
CHALK LINE: A line made on the roof by snapping
a taut string or cord dust with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.
CLASS “A”: The highest fire-resistance
rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Indicates roofing is able
to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources
outside the building.
CLASS “B”: Fire-resistance rating
that indicates roofing material is able to withstand moderate
exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
CLASS “C”: Fire-resistance rating
that indicates roofing material is able to withstand light exposure
to fire originating from sources outside the building.
CLOSED CUT VALLEY: A method of valley treatment in
which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the
valley while shingles from the other side are trimmed 2 inches
from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.
COATING: A layer of viscous asphalt applied
to the base material into which granules or other surfacing
COLLAR: Pre-formed flange placed over a vent
pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Also called
a vent sleeve.
CONCEALED NAIL METHOD: Application of roll
roofing in which all nails are driven into the underlying course
of roofing and covered by a cemented, overlapping course. Nails
are not exposed to the weather.
CONDENSATION: The change of water from to vapor to
liquid when warm, moisture-laden air comes in contact with a
COURSE: A row of shingles or roll roofing running
the length of the roof.
COVERAGE: Amount of weather protection provided
by the roofing material. Depends on number of layers of material
between the exposed surface of the roofing and the deck; i.e.
single coverage, double coverage, etc.
CRICKET: A peaked saddle construction at the
back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and
to deflect water around the chimney.
CUTOUT: The open portions of a strip shingle
between the tabs.
DECK: The surface, installed
over the supporting framing members, to which the roofing is
DORMER: A framed window unit projecting through
the sloping plane of a roof.
DOUBLE COVERAGE: Application of asphalt roofing
such that the lapped portion is at least 2 inches wider than
the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material
over the deck.
DOWNSPOUT: A pipe for draining water from roof
gutters. Also called a leader.
DRIP EDGE: A non-corrosive, non-staining material
used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip
clear of underlying construction.
DUTCH LAP METHOD: Application of giant individual
shingles with the long dimension parallel to the eaves.
EAVES: This is the lower, overhanging
part of your roof. Typically down where the gutter is located
is called the eaveline.
EAVES FLASHING: Additional layer of roofing
material applied at the eaves to help prevent damage from water
EDGING STRIPS: Boards nailed along eaves and
rakes after cutting back existing wood shingles to provide secure
edges for reroofing with asphalt shingles.
ELL: An extension of a building at right angles
to its length.
EXPOSED NAIL METHOD: Application of roll roofing
in which all nails are driven into the cemented, overlapping
course of roofing. Nails are exposed to the weather.
EXPOSURE: Vulnerability to the elements; to
the action of heat or cold or wind or rain; "exposure to
EXPOSURE I GRADE PLYWOOD: Type of plywood approved
by the American Plywood Association for exterior use.
FEATHERING STRIPS: Tapered wood
filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to
create a level surface when reroofing over existing wood shingles
to provide secure edges for reroofing with asphalt.
FELT: Fibrous material saturated with asphalt
and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper.
FIBERGLASS MATS: Asphalt roofing base material
manufactured from glass fiber.
FIRE RATING: Measurement used by independent
labs to determine resistance to fire.
FLASHING: Pieces of metal or roll roofing used
to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection
or projection in a roof such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining
walls, dormers and valleys. Galvanized metal flashing should
be minimum 26-gauge.
FLASHING CEMENT: See asphalt roofing cement.
FM: Factory Mutual Research Corp.
FREE-TAB SHINGLES: Shingles that do not contain factory-applied
strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
GABLE: The upper portion of
a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of
a sloping roof.
GABLE ROOF: A type of roof containing sloping
planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge. Contains
a gable at each end.
GAMBREL ROOF: A type of roof containing two
sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge.
The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains
a gable at each end.
GRANULES: Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock
that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
GUTTER: The trough that channels water from
the eaves to the downspouts.
HEAD LAP: Shortest distance from
the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of
a shingle in the second course below. The triple coverage portion
of the top lap of strip shingles.
HEX SHINGLES: Shingles that have the appearance
of a hexagon after installation.
HIP: The inclined external angle formed by
the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge
to the eaves.
HIP ROOF: A type of roof containing sloping
planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no
HIP SHINGLES: Shingles used to cover the inclined
external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof
HORSEFEATHERS: See feathering strips.
ICE DAM: Condition formed at
the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted
snow on the overhang. Can force water up and under shingles,
INTERLOCKING SHINGLES: Individual shingles
that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.
LAMINATED SHINGLES: Strip shingles
containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness.
Also called three-dimensional shingles or architectural shingles.
LAP: To cover the surface of one shingle or
roll with another.
LAP CEMENT: Asphalt-based cement used to adhere
overlapping plies of roll roofing.
LOW SLOPE APPLICATION: Method of installing asphalt
shingles on roof sloped between 2 and 4 inches per foot.
MANSARD ROOF: A type of roof
containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of
four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the
upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.
MASONRY PRIMER: An asphalt-based primer used
to prepare masonry surfaces for bonding with other asphalt products.
MASTIC: Asphalt-based sealant. Troweled, or
applied by hand using rubber gloves. Other trades have other
types of mastic products.
MINERAL STABILIZERS: Finely ground limestone,
slate, trap-rock or other inert materials added to asphalt coatings
for durability and increased resistance to fire and weathering.
MINERAL-SURFACED ROOFING: Asphalt shingles
and roll roofing that are covered with granules.
NESTING: A method of reroofing
with new asphalt shingles over old shingles in which the top
edge of the new shingle is butted against the bottom edge of
the existing shingle tab.
NO-CUTOUT SHINGLES: Shingles consisting of a single,
soled tab with no cutouts.
NON-VENEER PANEL: Any wood-based panel that does not
contain veneer and carries an APA span rating, such as wafer
board or oriented strand board.
NORMAL SLOPE APPLICATION: Method of installing asphalt
shingles on roof slopes between 4 inches and 21 inches per foot.
OPEN VALLEY: Method of valley
construction in which shingles on both sides of the valley are
trimmed along a chalk line snapped on each side of the valley.
Shingles do not extend across the valley. Valley flashing is
ORGANIC FELT: An asphalt roofing base material
manufactured from cellulose fibers.
OVERHANG: That portion of the roof structure
that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.
PALLETS: Tile and other materials
when purchased in quantity will come on a prebuilt wooden structure.
This is a pallet and the place where a forklift would put the
forks to lift the entire amount.
PITCH: The degree of roof incline expressed
as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.
PLY: The number of layers of roofing; i.e.,
QUICK-SETTING CEMENT: Asphalt-based
cement used to adhere tabs of strip shingles to the course below.
Also used to adhere roll-roofing laps applied by the concealed
RACKING: Roofing application
method in which shingle courses are applied vertically up the
roof rather than across and up. Not a recommended procedure.
RAFTER: The supporting framing member immediately
beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall.
RAKE: The inclined edge of a sloped roof over
a wall from the eave to the ridge.
RANDOM-TAB SHINGLES: Shingles on which tabs
vary in size and exposure.
RELEASE TAPE: A plastic or paper strip that
is applied to the back of self-sealing shingles. This strip
prevents the shingles from sticking together in the bundles,
and need not be removed for application.
RIDGE: The uppermost, horizontal external angle
formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
RIDGE SHINGLES: Shingles used to cover the
horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two
sloping roof planes.
RISE: The vertical distance from the eaves
line to the ridge.
ROLL ROOFING: Asphalt roofing products manufactured
in roll form.
ROOFING TAPE: Saturated tape used with asphalt
cements for flashing and patching asphalt roofing.
RUN: The horizontal distance from the eaves
to a point directly under the ridge. One-half the span.
SATURANT: Asphalt used to impregnate
an organic felt base material.
SATURATED FELT: An asphalt-impregnated felt
used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.
SELF-SEALING STRIP OR SPOT: Factory-applied
adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to
the heat of the sun after application.
SELVAGE: That portion of roll roofing overlapped
by the succeeding course to obtain double coverage.
SHADING: Slight differences in shingle color
that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.
SHEATHING: Exterior grade boards used as a
roof deck material.
SHED ROOF: A roof containing only one sloping
plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.
SHINGLE COVERAGE: Shingles containing factory-applied
strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
SINGLE COVERAGE: Asphalt roofing that provides
one layer of roofing material over the deck.
SLOPE: The degree of roof incline expressed
as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.
SMOOTH-SURFACED ROOFING: Roll roofing that
is covered with ground talc or mica instead of granules.
SOFFIT: The finished underside of the eaves.
SOIL STACK: A vent pipe that penetrates the
SPAN: The horizontal distance from eaves to
SQUARE: A unit of roof measure covering 100
SQUARE-TAB SHINGLES: Shingles on which tabs are all
the same size and exposure.
STARTER STRIP: Asphalt roofing applied at the
eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under
the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
STEEP SLOPE APPLICATION: Method of installing
asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.
STEP FLASHING: Flashing application method
used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.
STRIP SHINGLES: Asphalt shingles that are approximately
three times as long as they are wide.
TAB: The exposed portion of strip
shingles defined by cutouts.
TALC: See back surfacing.
TELEGRAPHING: A shingle distortion that may
arise when a new roof is applied over an uneven surface.
THREE DIMENSIONAL SHINGLES: See laminated
TOP LAP: That portion of the roofing covered
by the succeeding course after installation.
UL: Underwriters Laboratories,
UL LABEL: Label displayed on packaging to indicate
the level of fire and/or wind resistance of asphalt roofing.
UL® RATED: Elk Shingles carry UL Wind Resistant
and Class "A" Fire Ratings - the best available.
UNDERLAYMENT: Asphalt-saturated felt used beneath
roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.
VALLEY: The internal angle formed
by the intersection of two sloping roof planes to provide water
VAPOR RETARDER: Any material used to prevent
the passage of water vapor.
VENT: Any outlet for air that protrudes through
the roof deck, such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed
on the roof or gable for the purpose of ventilating the underside
of the roof deck.
VENT SLEEVE: See collar.
WOVEN VALLEY: Method of valley
construction in which shingles from both sides of the valley
extend across the valley and are woven together by overlapping
alternate courses as they are applied. The valley flashing is
NOTE: Above terms and definitions taken from
current Asphalt Roofers Manufacturers Association Manual. (ARMA
Catalogue No. 421-RR-84)