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Substances that affect the central nervous system
This group of drugs are substances that alter the functions of the central nervous system, exerting a direct impact on its various divisions - head, oblong or spinal cord.
For CNS morphological structure can be regarded as a collection of individual sets of neurons (neuron - nerve cell with its spikes), of which a person reaches 14 billion neurons of the connection between them is ensured by the contact with each other processes or nerve cell bodies.. Such interneuron contacts called synapses (sinapsis - link connection). transmission of nerve impulses in the synapses of the central nervous system, as in the synapses of the peripheral nervous system, by means of chemical transmitters excitation - mediators. The role of neurotransmitters in the synapses of the CNS operate acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and other substances.
The drugs affecting the central nervous system, modify (stimulate or inhibit) the transmission of nerve impulses in the synapses. Mechanisms of action of the substances on the central nervous system synapses different. For example, some substances can stimulate or block the receptors at synapses, which interact with certain neurotransmitters.
Research Chemicals affecting the CNS are typically classified according to their primary effects. For example, substances that cause anesthesia, combined in a group of narcosis, causing sleep - in a hypnotic group and so on..
Drugs affecting the CNS
Means for anesthesia;
Among these substances are drugs that have a depressant effect on the central nervous system, most functions. These substances include means for anesthesia, ethyl alcohol, hypnotics. Along with this, many substances (antiepileptics, antipsychotics, tranquilizers, sedatives) have more selective inhibitory effect on the central nervous system.
In contrast to those substances, some drugs acting on the central nervous system stimulating means (for example, analeptics, psychostimulants).
There are also substances that can have a depressing effect on some nerve centers and stimulating effect - on the other. For example, narcotic analgesics inhibit the perception of pain, respiratory center, the cough center, but stimulate the vagus centers and oculomotor centers.